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Ranuir: A Reference Grammar

by Lexi Summer Hale

Chapter 2

Chapter Vocabulary

par (v) talk, speak, say
num (n) subject, topic
mir (n) love and commitment
tah (n) cruelty, barbarism
tahin (n) barbarian
dal (n) existence
dale (v) exist
arrise (v) to inflict corporal punishment on
sigris (n) punishment by electrical torture
nar (n) reason, cause
nare (n) to cause, be a reason
pel (n) happiness
pele (v) be happy

Verbs

The good thing about Ranuir's verbs is that they're all completely regular. Every single verb obeys the exact same rules, and the rules are mostly pretty simple. However, unlike English, Ranuir has a large number of morphemes that can be attached to verbs to modify their meaning, and these morphemes can stack on each other. This lesson will give you an overview of these forms and how they're used.

Stative form

The stative form is one of the forms you've already encountered. This is simply a noun with the basic verb ending -e attached to it. The stative form refers to a simple ongoing state, such as the state of being in a place, of loving another person, of knowing a language, of being a citizen, or of hoping for something. Some examples:

pare (v) talk, speak, say
nume (v) have to do with
mire (v) love romantically
tahe (v) be cruel
dale (v) exist
nare (v) cause, be a reason
pele (v) be happy

Causative form

The causative form of a stative verb communicates the action of placing someone or something into a state. For example, the causative form of mire “to love romantically” would mean something like “to seduce.” Like many Ranuir verb forms, the causative has two sub-forms, one that is much stronger than the other. The weak causative implies that the agent plays a less immediate or forceful role in state-change, whereas the strong causative is strongly “agentive,” often implying that someone was forced into a state, possibly even physically.

The weak causative is formed by doubling the first consonant of the verb and prefixing it with a-, unless it begins with a /d/ or a /t/, in which case no doubling occurs and the prefixes av- and af- are used. For instance, the weak causative of mire is ammire. The strong caustive is formed by inserting an -s- after the first consonant, and prefixing the first consonant with a-. So the strong causative of amsire.

Cessative form

The cessative form of a stative verb indicates the termination of a state. It is formed by taking the first consonant and copying it before the last -e, then prefixing an e- to the verb. For example, the cessative of case “to hope” is ecasce “to lose hope.”

Causative-cessative form

The causative-cessative form combines the meanings of the causative and cessative, signalling the action of causing another to leave a state, or causing a state to cease applying. The weak form is formed by prefixing a verb with ev-, so the weak causative-cessative form of iure “to live” would be eviure “to cause to die.” The strong form is formed by doubling up the final vowel before the terminal -e and inserting -nd- between them, e.g. iundure “to kill.”

  1. 1 An case.
    I hope.
  2. 2 Rani numit an pare.
    I talk about the People.
  3. 3 Ani numit ran pare.
    The People talk about me.
  4. 4 An tahina iundure.
    I kill the barbarian.
  5. 5 Ana tahin iundure.
    I am killed by a barbarian.
  6. 6 Anit teg dale.
    There is a mountain here.